Dry friction is the force that opposes one solid surface sliding across another solid surface. Dry friction always opposes the surfaces sliding relative to one another and can have the effect of either opposing motion or causing motion in bodies.
The most commonly used model for dry friction is coulomb friction. This type of friction can further be broken down into static friction and kinetic friction. These two types of friction are illustrated in the diagram below. First imagine a box sitting on a surface. A pushing force is applied parallel to the surface and is constantly being increased. A gravitational force, a normal force, and a frictional force are also acting on the box.
Static friction occurs prior to the box slipping and moving. In this region the friction force will be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the pushing force itself. As the magnitude of the pushing force increases so does the magnitude of the friction force.
If the magnitude of the pushing force continues to rise, eventually the box will begin to slip. As the box begins to slip the type of friction opposing the motion of the box changes from static friction to what is called kinetic friction. The point just before the box slips is known as impending motion. This can also be thought of as the maximum static friction force before slipping. The magnitude of the maximum static friction force is equal to the static coefficient of friction times the normal force existing between the box and the surface. This coefficient of friction is a property that depends on both materials and can usually be looked up in tables.
Kinetic friction occurs beyond the point of impending motion when the box is sliding. With kinetic friction, the magnitude of the friction force opposing motion will be equal to the kinetic coefficient of friction times the normal force between the box and the surface. The kinetic coefficient of friction also depends upon the two materials in contact, but will almost always be less than the static coefficient of friction.